Manual Regulatory RNAs: Basics, Methods and Applications

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Regulatory RNAs: Basics, Methods and Applications file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Regulatory RNAs: Basics, Methods and Applications book. Happy reading Regulatory RNAs: Basics, Methods and Applications Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Regulatory RNAs: Basics, Methods and Applications at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Regulatory RNAs: Basics, Methods and Applications Pocket Guide.

Enhancer is the cis-acting DNA sequence that can enhance the transcription of an associated gene, when bound by specific transcription factors. The pre-mRNAs are capped, polyadenylated, spliced, edited and transferred from nucleus to cytoplasm. The stability of mRNA is also an important aspect for translation.


  • Samuel Beckett : debts and legacies.
  • Buying Options.
  • Startup Communities: Building an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in Your City (1st Edition).
  • Categorical Topology: Proceedings of the Conference Held at Mannheim, 21–25, July, 1975;
  • My Wishlist!

Alternative splicing is a regulatory process during gene expression that enables a single gene coding for multiple proteins. Recent studies indicate that lncRNA can regulate alternative splicing through two main mechanisms. SR splicing factor proteins, such as SRSF1, are a conserved family of proteins involved in RNA splicing regulation in a concentration- and phosphorylation-dependent manner. Different mRNAs have different lifespans, even in a single cell. The steady-state level of a mRNA is determined by the rate of synthesis and degradation.

Modulation of mRNA degradation is an important control point in gene expression to regulate protein synthesis in response to physiological needs and environmental signals. LncRNA can also directly interact with proteins and regulate their stability by retarding protein ubiquitination and degeneration. Androgen receptor AR is a critical risk factor in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Transcription and translation are two main stages in gene expression.

In translation, the ribosomal preinitiation complex, consisting of eukaryotic initiation factors eIFs and ribosomes, is positioned the start codon of the target RNA. The subcellular localization of lncRNAs is associated with their functions.

Shopping Cart

Telomeric repeat-binding factor-2 TRF2 , a critical component of the shelterin complex, is one of the targets of miRa. LncRNA can act as protein molecular decoy by binding and sequestering proteins, thereby inhibiting their functions [ 54 ]. Glucocorticoid receptor GR plays important role in regulating genes associated with metabolism, development and immune response. Here we will give a brief introduction of the interactions of lncRNA with other molecules.

The Hoogsteen hydrogen binding by a third strand is usually weaker than the Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding. When the proteins introduced by lncRNAs are methylation—related enzymes, these enzymes can induce promotor CpG island methylation or demethylation Figure 1A. When the proteins imported by lncRNAs are histone modifier enzymes Figure 1A , histone modifications can result gene expression, transcriptional silencing, or DNA repair and genomic imprinting.

LncRNA can regulate either neighboring cis or distal trans protein coding genes. The mechanisms of lncRNA regulating gene expression by interacting with other molecule. A lncRNA acting as scaffold binds to chromatin and epigenetic modifier, guide the epigenetic modifier to gene promotor. D lncRNA can act as scaffold for two or more protein, these proteins will act coordinately or act as a complex left. Some antisense lncRNAs can bind to the homologous mRNA at the splice site, thereby masking the splice site and blocking spliceosome assembly [ 69 ].

There is no double that RNA-protein interactions play a crucial role in fundamental cellular processes. LncRNAs can function as protein decoys recruiting or sequester proteins, or act as scaffolds linking different proteins, which may act coordinately or act as a complex Figure 1D left.

Several models have been established to understand how an lncRNA regulates gene expression by protein binding. LncRNAs are able to recruit chromatin modifier to achieve chromatin modification [ 73 ]. LncRNA can bind and stabilize a protein by masking its ubiquitination site, inducing the accumulation of the target protein [ 44 ].

LncRNAs are also able to bind to functional enzymes to inhibit their activities [ 33 ], resulting elevated levels of substrate proteins. Most of lncRNAs are located exclusively in the nucleus, but some of them are located in the cytoplasm or in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Increasing evidence reveals that RNA subcellular location is a very important feature in understanding lncRNA functions.

The nuclear function of lncRNAs are apt to regulate gene expression in cis or in trans. In the nucleus, a lncRNA can accumulate at its transcription site and recruit transcription factors or chromatin modifiers. Genes Dev. Cap analysis gene expression for high-throughput analysis of transcriptional starting point and identification of promoter usage.

source url

Regulatory RNAs - Basics, Methods and Applications | Bibekanand Mallick | Springer

Lasda E, Parker R. Circular RNAs: diversity of form and function. RNA-Seq: a revolutionary tool for transcriptomics. Stem cell transcriptome profiling via massive-scale mRNA sequencing. Nat Methods. The transcriptional landscape of the yeast genome defined by RNA sequencing. Chromatin signature reveals over a thousand highly conserved large non-coding RNAs in mammals.

Regulatory RNAs

Extensive and coordinated transcription of noncoding RNAs within cell-cycle promoters. Cancer Lett. Database Oxford. Improved accuracy in RNA-protein rigid body docking by incorporating force field for molecular dynamics simulation into the scoring function. J Chem Theory Comput. Mattick JS. Probing the phenomics of noncoding RNA. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. Adv Drug Deliv Rev.

Samenvatting

Sioud M. Methods Mol Biol.

RNA targeting therapeutics: molecular mechanisms of antisense oligonucleotides as a therapeutic platform. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. Nat Rev Drug Discov. An improved zinc-finger nuclease architecture for highly specific genome editing. Nat Biotechnol.

Fluorescence-Based Methods for Characterizing RNA Interactions In Vivo

RNA-guided genetic silencing systems in bacteria and archaea. Considerations when investigating lncRNA function in vivo. BMC Genomics. Airn transcriptional overlap, but not its lncRNA products, induces imprinted Igf2r silencing. Cell Stem Cell. Long noncoding RNA Hotair mediated angiogenesis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma by direct and indirect signaling pathways. J Biol Chem. Local regulation of gene expression by lncRNA promoters, transcription and splicing. PLoS One. The accessible chromatin landscape of the human genome.

Long non-coding RNA taurine upregulated 1 enhances tumor-induced angiogenesis through inhibiting microRNA in human glioblastoma. The genetic signatures of noncoding RNAs.